biology test 9

biology test 9.

____ 1.
____ 2.
____ 3.
____ 4.
____ 5.
____ 6.
A ______________ is a picture that shows the pairs of homologous chromosomes arranged in order from increasing to decreasing size.

genotype
pedigree
karyotype

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What is the base-pairing rule for binding purines and pyrimidines in the DNA molecule?

C-U and A-G
A-G and C-T
A-T and C-G

A pea plant homozygous for the trait of smooth seeds is crossed with a pea plant that is homozygous for the trait of wrinkled seeds. The first generation produces seeds that are all smooth. What will the ratio of smooth seeds to wrinkled seeds be in the second-generation plants when the F1 generation is self-
fertilized?

4:0
3:1
2:2

The color of snapdragon flowers is a result of incomplete dominance. When a snapdragon with white flowers is crossed with a snapdragon with red flowers, what color offspring will result?

pink
white and red
red, white, and pink

What do scientists use as tools for isolating specific genes or creating fragments of a genome?

polymerase chain reaction
restriction enzymes
transformation

Which of the following genetic disorders is caused by dominant alleles for that trait?

Tay-Sachs disease
Cystic fibrosis
Huntingtonâ€s disease

____ 7.
The study of how genetic inheritance affects the bodyâ€s response to drugs is called

gene therapy.
proteomics.
pharmacogenomics.

Which event during meiosis leads to a reduction in the chromosomes number from 2n to n?

Pairs of homologous chromosomes line up at the equator.
DNA undergoes replication.
Homologous chromosomes travel to opposite sides of the cell.

An individual with the genotype Aa is ______________ for the trait.

homozygous dominant
heterozygous dominant
recessive

What is the correct order of the processes that occur during protein synthesis?

DNA codes for RNA which guides protein synthesis.
RNA codes for DNA which guides protein synthesis.
DNA and protein synthesis create RNA.

For the trait being followed in this pedigree, what is the relationship between individual I-1 and individual III-2?

grandmother – grandson
grandfather – granddaughter
mother – son

What process involves manipulating the DNA of one organism in order to insert the DNA of another organism?

genetic engineering
inbreeding
cloning

What type of mutation is responsible for the disease called Crohnâ€s disease?

Insertion
Deletion
Duplication

Which of the following is a method of prokaryotic gene regulation?

Hox genes
RNA interference
lac operon

____ 8.
____ 9.
____ 10.
____ 11.

____ 12.
____ 13.
____ 14.
____ 15.
___________ DNA is a newly generated DNA molecule containing DNA regions from different sources.

Restriction
Recombinant
Single-stranded

______________ is an environmental influence that commonly affects an organismâ€s phenotype.

epistasis
temperature
autosome development

The process through which the mRNA is capped, spliced, and a poly-A tail is added thereby becoming ready for its role in protein synthesis is called

RNA processing.
translation.
transcription.

A true-breeding yellow pea plant is crossed with a true-breeding green pea plant, and all the offspring are yellow. What is the most likely genotype of the offspring assuming a single-gene trait?

yy
YY
Yy

What enzyme is responsible for building the new DNA strand during replication?

DNA helicase
DNA polymerase
DNA ligase

Which type of human cell typically contains 46 chromosomes?

male gamete
female gamete
skin cell

Santa Gertrudis cattle were developed by mating shorthorn beef cattle, who produce high quality beef, with heat- and insect-resistant Brahman cattle from India. The result of this cross is cattle that are resistant to heat and insects and who also produce high-quality beef. This process is an example of

cloning.
genetic engineering.
hybridization.

____________ is the process that forms gametes.

cytokinesis
mitosis
meiosis

____ 16.
____ 17.
____ 18.
____ 19.
____ 20.
____ 21.
____ 22.
____ 23.
____ 24.
____ 25.
____ 26.
____ 27.
____ 28.
____ 29.
____ 30.
A phenotype that results from a dominant allele must have at least one __________ allele present in the parent.

recessive
incomplete
dominant

During which phase of meiosis do homologous pairs of chromosomes line up next to one another along the equator?

anaphase I
metaphase I
prophase I

A(n) ______________ is an organism that contains a gene from another organism.

cloned organism
inbred organism
transgenic organism

When a homozygous male animal with black fur is crossed with a homozygous female with white fur, they have offspring with black fur. What type of inheritance does this represent?

complete dominance
incomplete dominance
multiple alleles

_______________ would NOT lead to genetic variation in organisms.

Mitosis
Meiosis
Independent assortment

Which statement about the human genome is false?

It contains approximately 23,000 genes.
It contains long stretches of repeated sequences with no known direct function.
Over 50 percent of all the nucleotides code for proteins in the human body.

A heterozygous organism is also known as

dominant.
purebred (true-breeding).
hybrid.

Mendel took the pollen from a tall pea plant and pollinated the flower of a short pea plant. When he did this, he removed the male parts of the flower on the short plant. Why was it important that he remove the male parts from the flower of the short plant?

because he wanted to prevent self-pollination
because the short plant was heterozygous
because he wanted to prevent the development of seeds

____ 31.
____ 32.
____ 33.
____ 34.
____ 35.
____ 36.
____ 37.
The offspring of the cross-fertilization of YY pea plants with purple flowers and yy pea plants with white flowers are

pure breeds (true-breeding).
recessive breeds.
hybrids.

Which of the following would least likely be the result of a mutation in a personâ€s skin cells?

skin cancer
reduced functioning of the skin cell
the personâ€s offspring would have mutated skin

Which of the following bases are correctly paired together according to Chargaffâ€s rule?
a. A=G b. T=C c. T=A
A technique aimed at correcting mutated genes that cause human diseases is called

selective breeding.
gene therapy.
cloning.

Which of the following is a disadvantage of selective breeding?

Desirable traits are passed to offspring.
It is time intensive.
Plants and animals can grow faster.

Which of the following is a sex-linked disorder?

hemophilia
cystic fibrosis
albinism

The diagram below represents the sexual life cycle in dogs. A dog has 78 chromosomes, in this diagram the numbers represent the chromosome number found in each of the dog cells shown. The process that is occurring at A is called

mitosis.
meiosis.
fertilization.

____ 38.
____ 39.
____ 40.
____ 41.
____ 42.
____ 43.
____ 44.
____ 45.
____ 46.
During meiosis the production of gametes with one extra chromosome 21 (trisomy 21) leads to a condition called

Klinefelterâ€s syndrome.
Turnerâ€s syndrome.
Down syndrome.

Meiosis is the process that

consists of only one set of division phases and produces two identical diploid daughter cells.
consists of two sets of divisions and produces four haploid daughter cells that are not identical.
involves the selection of certain traits to be passed to the future generation.

A DNA segment is changed from -AATTAG- to -AATTTTAG-. What type of mutation is this?

duplication
frameshift
substitution

Which series is arranged in order from largest to smallest in size?

chromosome, nucleus, cell, DNA, nucleotide
cell, nucleus, chromosome, DNA, nucleotide
cell, nucleotide, nucleus, DNA, chromosome

Which of Mendelâ€s laws states that a random distribution of alleles occur during gamete formation?

law of independent assortment
law of hybrids
law of inheritance

If a black guinea pig (Bb) were crossed with a white guinea pig (bb), what would be the resulting phenotypic ratio?

1:0 black to white
1:1 black to white
3:1 black to white

What is the name of the method used by breeders to preserve desirable traits by developing pure lines?

hybridization
inbreeding
cross pollination

Okazaki fragments are the small segments on which strand of DNA?

leading strand
lagging strand
same strand

The physical appearance of an organism is known as its

phenotype.
genotype.
pedigree.

____ 47.
Which of these is NOT a structure found in DNA?
a. deoxyribose b. phosphate group c. ribose
Of these agricultural species, which would likely be a polyploid?
a. sugar cane b. goat c. chicken
What is the term used to describe the process by which desired traits of certain animals are chosen so that they can be passed on to future generations?

cloning
hybridization
selective breeding

In pea plants, inflated pods (R) are dominant to constricted pods (r). Which of the following shows a cross between inflated pods and constricted pods?

RRxRR
RRxRr
RRxrr

 
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