Debating Sex and Gender.
answer each question in a paragraph.
1, Georgia Warnke in Debating Sex and Gender suggests that intersexuality presents certain challenges to a dual gender/sex system. Why? What is intersexuality? Is it a medical condition and/or a social condition? Give examples. For instance, consider how intersexuality historically has been â€œtreatedâ€ by the medical profession? In the case of Herculine Barbin, a 19th century hermaphrodite (intersexual), how were medical professionals responsible for helping the state (in this case, the government of France) to police intersexuals? Should it be the business of the state to determine the identity of intersexual individuals, that is, their gender identification? Why? Why not? In what ways, if any, are things different today? The medical profession is still involved in â€œfixingâ€ intersexual individuals, but they intervene much earlier today, as they try to â€œfixâ€ babies before the age of 18 months. However, as these babies have become adults, a rift (a difference of opinion) is emerging between the medical professionals and the intersexual individuals who have been treated by them. Explain and discuss. Should intersexuality be treated by medicine, by the state, by anyone?
2. What is sociobiology (behavioral ecology?) How does it differ from the claim put forward by De Beauvoir, according to Warnke, that women are made not born? For De Beauvoir, the subordination of women is a function of a cultural value system that places women in an â€œinferiorâ€ position by making them a slave to the species through their reproductive function by identifying them with the â€œnaturalâ€ reproduction of the species, which enables men to transcend (go beyond) so-called natural processes to make tools by means of which we control and ultimately aim to master nature. Hence, the invention of technology, which is identified with culture and seeks to dominate nature (including women) is valued more highle than what we identify with nature, with the result that women are put in a subordinate position by means of culture. Sociobiologists, on the other hand, hold on the basis of the observation of animal behavior that all social behavior, including reproductive behavior is a function of biological pre-programing or instinct. Thus, on the basis of the observation of male mallard ducks â€œrapingâ€ female ducks, they argue that rape is a reproductive strategy programed by evolution to have men impregnate as many women as possible to propagate their genes. This is sometimes referred to as arguing n a circle, because it applies a social behavior found in humans, which is typically considered morally reprehensible to ducks, where no such moral judgment can be made, and then reapplying the observed behavior in ducks to humans, using the word â€œrape.â€ Discuss and explain. Be sure to explain both positions as fully as you can.
3. Is gender identity an accomplishment of culture? In what ways do surgical practices, such as those in transsexual operations and intersexual operations, as well as that practiced in female genital mutilation constitute a practice that shapes gender identity culturally, in the first case voluntarily, in the second two cases involuntarily? Alternatively, consider foot-binding or neck coils; how do they shape the so-called natural body irrevocably, making it the body of culture? It could be argued that many of these cultural practices are viewed as a means to shaping womenâ€s bodies in a way that first makes them â€œrealâ€ women. How might such techniques in their involuntary form be linked to the control of womenâ€s bodies more generally. We rarely, see such practices applied to men, excpt perhaps in the circumcision of male babies. Discuss and explain.
4. In regard to the suggestion that perhaps there should be more than one or two sexes/genders, what do you think? Do you think that sexual difference should be conceived as existing on a continuum or as an opposition? Warnke argues that historically the binary sex model, m/f didnâ€t really exist at first, but was really a one sex model, as found, for example in Aristotleâ€s claim that the female is a deformed male, which suggests that women historically have not had a positive identity of their own? As it turns out, the recognition of intersexual individuals may have contributed to the recognition that there were more than one or two sexes, but also that these may exist on a continuum. Discuss and explain
1. What is â€œtransgenderâ€? 2. What is transsexual?
2. what is a guevedoche?
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