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Non-experimental research is when the variables are measured as they naturally occur.The natural occurrence can happen in a lab or in the real world.In dependent variables are not manipulated.Non-experimental research cannot provide evidence of changes caused to a dependent variable by and independent variable.My research plan would more than likely use a non-experimental design because there is no variable which can be manipulated through theoretical scenarios or lab experiments.My research deals with real world events which are constantly unfolding.
The purpose of my research is to find ways to improve security along the SW border of the United States.Border security in the United States is protecting our borders from things that threaten the lawful trade and travel, national sovereignty, and economic prosperity of the United States.Several ways that this is accomplished is by the prevention of illegal movement of contraband, weapons, drugs, and people.My non-experimental research will be observational based.I will be taking an account of events without interfering or manipulating any variables. There may be some instances in my research that my non-experimental research is correlational and analyze the statistical relationships between variables that are measured without manipulation.
An experimental design method is a quantitative research approach that examines the impacts of cause-and-effect relationships involving the calibration of variables to observe effects on dependent variables (Leedy & Ormrod, 2016) . An experimental design in assessing integrated capability management within an organization applies when examining machine learning algorithms. The independent variable (the algorithm) is tested to observe impacts on the dependent variable (the dataset) to discover and measure accuracy of the algorithm. The problem grows in complexity when considering multiple disparate datasets.
The quasi-experimental design method is another quantitative tactic that involves manipulation of the independent variable but with lack of control on other variables that might affect the outcome raising the possibility that the experiment yields inconclusive results (Leedy & Ormrod, 2016) . While this is a possible technique in the evaluation of integrated capability management, the method is less attractive than experimental design due to the risk of inconclusive results. Non-experimental of ex post facto design is a quantitative approach that examines the results of some phenomena after the fact given that actual research is not possible due to ethical concerns or the timing of events (Leedy & Ormrod, 2016) . This technique is not a candidate for integrated capability management as the data is readily accessible, and the research intends to examine the cause-and-effect relationships measuring and documenting advantages, disadvantages, and outcomes of various algorithmic methods.
The experimental design method is the first choice as a quantitative approach given the precision the technique demands in examining cause-and-effect relationships on learning algorithms based on integrated capability management datasets. Similar research assures that experimental design contributes to the development of new frameworks applied to specific domains such as business process event modeling (Cuzzocrea, Folino, Guarascio, & Pontieri, 2018) . Research results also exist on quantitative analysis of relationships between capabilities and performance which employ experimental design techniques in observing dependent variable outcomes when manipulating the independent variable (Ming, Jun, Hang, & Hao, 2018) . The lesson learned from the literature review implies that examining cause-and-effect relationships of algorithms on fixed datasets yields insights and progression towards solving applied problems.
Despite the variety of methods that can be employed in qualitative analysis, a qualitative research methodology typically centers on a specific contextual occurrence and obtaining an understanding of the intricacy of the occurrence in the designated contextual environment and not a cause and effect relationship of two identified variables. (Leedy & Ormrod, 2016).Researchers employing a qualitative approach pose open-ended inquiries to participants in an attempt to obtain enough information to assess the appropriate methodology for analysis (Leedy & Ormrod, 2016).Questions posed by the researcher may evolve in their specificity based on the information gleaned from previous exploratory inquiries which further drive the qualitative approach developing into a case study, or a focused group over a defined period of time, ethnography or an in-depth study of an entire group typically sharing a common culture, or content analysis seeking to identify trends or prejudices (Leedy & Ormrod, 2016).
While interviews and observations tend to be the standard method of data collection in qualitative analysis studies, a qualitative researcher must look at similar research conducted in the past and derive meaning from previous studies in search of the basis and focus of their research (Leedy & Ormrod, 2016).Qualitative analysis can provide preliminary insight to a topic having little research conducted, aid in the development of new theories, and reveal complex relationships between specific contextual occurrences.
In the context of a qualitative research approach to the current cyber skills deficiencies impacting the Colorado Springs federal labor market, the following question may provide insight into the current workforce shortages:
What types of training and skills do cyber professionals in the federal sector require?
The following supporting interview questions may provide more specific information on current skills and training requirements:
What industry certification are required?
What degree programs are required?
What level of experience is required?
What types of internal and external training programs are available to the existing workforce?
What funding resources, if any, are available to current cyber professionals?
What other requirements may preclude specific individuals from entering the federal cyber workforce?
Qualitative research methods rely on the collection and analysis of non-numerical data and drives to determine social science phenomena targeting different domains of people through observation deploying instruments such as interviews, surveys, and focus groups (Stickler & Hampel, 2015) . Qualitative research offers advantages as opposed to quantitative research in that the method enables exploration, verification of assumptions, the development of theory, problem identification and evaluation (Arslan-Ari, Ari, Grant, & Morris, 2018) . Qualitative research consists of five distinguishing design types including case study (evaluation of a single person or situation), ethnography (evaluation of a group), phenomenological study (participant’s perspective), grounded theory (theory development from data collection in natural setting) and content analysis (identification of specific characteristics of a material body) which are not always wholly independent (Leedy & Ormrod, 2016) .
A significant distinction of a qualitative research method as opposed to quantitative or mixed methods is the desire to seek understanding of social action as opposed to attempting to predict or regulate human behavior given the inconsistent nature of circumstances and the effect on outcomes (Venkatesh, Brown, & Sullivan, 2016) . Another distinction of a qualitative approach is the desire to construct creditability rather than validity (which is the driver in quantitative research) enabling the researcher to focus on veracity and accuracy which formulates the basis of an argument (Arslan-Ari et al., 2018) . The social setting is an essential distinction in qualitative research where subjectivity and bias can easily affect the outcomes of the research meaning that grounded theory is a crucial distinguishing characteristic (Leedy & Ormrod, 2016) . Lastly, perspective is a distinction based on social phenomenology where the interpretation of the participant provides vital insights into the phenomenon and why bias is formed (Stickler & Hampel, 2015) .
On the topic of capability management, one research question that leverages a qualitative research method is, “what activities does the organization consider of highest priority that requires substantial investment and oversight?”This question anchors back to research-based theory, which seeks to understand how to sustain a competitive advantage (Barney & Clark, 2007) . The research results contribute to the hermeneutics of the problem, providing insight into the advancement of the topic (Stickler & Hampel, 2015) . Given the advantages of both qualitative and quantitative research as applied to capability management, a mixed-method research design is a viable option (Venkatesh et al., 2016) .